According to Piaget (2005), the starting point of the cognitivo development is characterized by a practical intelligence, in a period of development, where the child searchs to understand the reality through the construction of action projects, what she characterizes the period sensrio-engine. These projects serve of substructures to the structures most complex of the next periods to cognitivo development: the period daily pay-operatrio, operatrio-concrete and operatrio-deed of division. For Piaget (2003) the interpersonal relations demand rules and the cognitivo development is essential for the understanding of the same ones. Therefore, the intellectual development is related to the spontaneous experiences and acquired of the individual, of the sensrio-motor actions to the formal operations, by means of successive transformations. In this vision, the construction of the knowledge ponders the mechanism that Piaget (2003) called of equilibrao for auto-regulation. This it means exactly that the individual uses the available cognitivos resources to understand, that momentarily, the lived deeply situations or problematizadas, being able throughout its development to surpass its understanding by means of disequilibria.
This process allows the citizen, a new elaboration of its understanding due to formation of new structures of thought. The learning difficulties, in this conception, can be explained by the limitations of the citizens in processing or to use, adequately, the information that receive from the way, revealing as incapable to learn, to understand, to read, to write, to calculate, to conserve, to congregate, to command, to classify, to abstract, etc. Learning, according to Wedge (1987), means the act of the apprentice to learn; the proper word learning suggests that the individual actively dirige when learning. The term problem, according to exactly author, appeared in century XVII and mentions a mathematical question to it, therefore, of logical order, proposal so that it is given a solution. The word riot, according to Wedge (1987), means alteration of the order of the things, interruption and, when if it relates to the learning, in general it is related the neurological comprometimentos that affect the act to learn.